Anders Celsius Fact File: Lifespan: 1701 - 1744 *** Full Name: Anders Celsius *** Occupation: Swedish Astronomer *** Date of Birth: He was born on November 27th, 1701 *** Place of Birth: He was born in Uppsala, Sweden *** Family background: His father was Nils Celsius *** Early life and childhood: He grew up in Uppsala *** Education: He began his education at Uppsala University ***
Anders Celsius Fact 1: He was born during the 18th century when there were huge strides made in the Industrial Revolution. Steam engines replaced manual labor either by man or animal. Machinery made possible mass production possible,
Anders Celsius Fact 2: His father was an astronomer and his grandfather a mathematician so it was no wonder he decided on a career in the sciences.
Anders Celsius Fact 3: Between 1716 and 1732 around 116 observations were made of the aurora borealis by others as well as himself and he published his findings in Nuremberg in 1733.
Anders Celsius Fact 4: He became a professor of astronomy at Uppsala University just as his father had been before him.
Anders Celsius Fact 5: During the 1730’s he traveled Europe extensively, through France, Germany and Italy spending time at the observatories.
Anders Celsius Fact 6: Whist in Paris he promoted the arc of the meridian in Lapland as a measurement.
Anders Celsius Fact 7: By 1736 he took part in an expedition specifically for the purpose of measuring the length of a degree along a meridian near to the pole and measure the result against another expedition to Peru together.
Anders Celsius Fact 8: This expedition took place with the French Academy of Sciences led by Pierre Louis Maupertuis, who was a French mathematician, philosopher and a highly literate man.
Anders Celsius Fact 9: The expedition as successful in that confirmed what Isaac Newton believed, which was that the earth was actually an ellipsoid and flattened at the each pole.
Anders Celsius Fact 10: By 1938 he had published his book Observations on Determining the Shape of the Earth.
Anders Celsius Fact 11: Having participated in that particular expedition earned him huge respect from the Swedish government.
Anders Celsius Fact 12: So impressed where the government that they donated the money for an observatory to be built in Uppsala.
Anders Celsius Fact 13: His next project was in using colored glass plates to enable him to record the magnitude of certain stars.
Anders Celsius Fact 14: His was the first attempt to measure the brightness of stars other than with the human eye.
Anders Celsius Fact 15: He was now able to observe eclipses and various other astronomical phenomena and to document his findings.
Anders Celsius Fact 16: He would be the first scientist to conduct and publish his findings aimed at defining the international temperature scale on scientific terms.
Anders Celsius Fact 17: He went on to propose the Celsius temperature scale that he proposed to the Royal Society of Sciences in Uppsala.
Anders Celsius Fact 18: His thermometer was regulated to a value of O° boiling point for and 100 ° for freezing.
Anders Celsius Fact 19: It would be one year after his death that the measure was reversed by Carl Linnaeus to enable a more applied measurement.
Anders Celsius Fact 20: On April 25th 1744 he died having succumbed to tuberculosis in his home town of Uppsala in Sweden.
Influence & Legacy: He had originally called his measurement centigrade being Latin for “one hundred steps” but later, in his honor it was changed to Celsius. His legacy would be that even now, in the 21st century we are using his scale of measurement as the most accurate form. It is utilized in most scientific applications as it is also the same size as a degree Kelvin. Temperature has also become important in our day to day lives, from signaling to nature when it is time to change seasons to differing temperatures used in food production to heating our homes. It is widely used in industry allowing us to heat materials to an optimum temperature in order make metals pliable for varying applications.
Important Events of the 18th century and during the life of Anders Celsius include: Jethro Tull inventing the seed drill, the piano is invented by Bartolomeo Cristofori and the first mercury thermometer was invented by Gabriel Fahrenheit.