King Charles I Fact Sheet: Who was King Charles I? The following short biography and fact sheet provides interesting facts about the life, times and history of King Charles I.
King Charles I Fact File: Lifespan: 1600 – 1649 *** Full Name: Charles I *** Occupation: King of England, Scotland and Ireland *** Date of Birth: King Charles I was born on November 19th 1600 *** Place of Birth: King Charles I was born in Dunfermline Palace, Fife in Scotland *** Family background: His father was King James VI of Scotland and his mother was Anne of Denmark, in the Chapel Royal at Holyrood Palace in Edinburgh he was baptized in a Protestant ceremony by the Bishop of Ross, David Lindsay. He had an older brother Henry and an older sister Elizabeth. He was a son *** Early life and childhood: In infancy he was a weak and sickly baby and faired not much better growing up *** Education: King Charles I received an excellent education given by various tutors ***
King Charles I Fact 1: King Charles I was born on November 19th 1600 and during the 17th century period in history when during this period there were mass changes that took place in philosophy as well as science. It was also a time when medieval alchemy would become the chemistry of the future and there were many innovations.
King Charles I Fact 2: When Elizabeth I died childless in March of 1603 King James VI of Scotland inherited the throne and with his wife and two older children, made the journey to England leaving Charles behind as it was felt he was too weak to make the journey.
King Charles I Fact 3: When he was able to walk the length of the Dunfermline Palace great hall at three and half years, it was decided he was strong enough to make the journey to join his family in England.
King Charles I Fact 4: As a second son to a reigning monarch Charles was created the Duke of York as was customary in England.
King Charles I Fact 5: As Charles grew he became stronger and would become an skillful horseman and marksman. However he remained in the shadows next to his older brother Henry Frederick, the Prince of Wales. Charles adored his older brother and aspired to be just like him.
King Charles I Fact 6: Much to the families horror and distress, two weeks before Charles’ twelfth birthday in 1612, Henry died of what was thought to be typhoid at just eighteen years of age leaving Charles heir apparent.
King Charles I Fact 7: His sister married the Protestant Frederick V, Elector Palatine which in years to come with both Frederick V and Archduke Ferdinand of Austria, a Catholic, would engage in the Thirty Year War which began in 1618 and weakened James hopes for a Spanish alliance in marriage between Ferdinand’s niece, Princess Maria Anna of Spain.
King Charles I Fact 8: Charles would travel to Spain, quietly to try and negotiate the marriage while his father in England battle the House of Commons Members of Parliament who did not wish their future protestant king marrying a catholic.
King Charles I Fact 9: Eventually Charles returned having been unable to come to terms as the terms were unreasonable.
King Charles I Fact 10: Charles would become King on the death of his father on March 27th 1625.
King Charles I Fact 11: After his failed attempt to marry the Spanish Princess he did however succeed in marrying the French Princess Henrietta Maria by proxy initially but weeks later in person on June 13th 1625 in Canterbury. Marriage to a Roman Catholic did not go down well in Parliament.
King Charles I Fact 12: Part of Charles’ agreement with France was to provide a naval force to assist in suppressing the Protestant Huguenots at La Rochelle.
King Charles I Fact 13: The Duke of Buckingham had been a favourite of James VI and had huge influence over James. However, on James’ instruction a poorly executed navel expedition against Spain went very poorly under Buckingham’s direction and already unpopular with the House of Commons they began impeachment proceedings against him.
King Charles I Fact 14: To show his support, the members that had stood against Buckingham were arrested but after a short period in custody they were both released. Parliament was not happy and when he refused to dismiss Buckingham instead he dismissed Parliament.
King Charles I Fact 15: The marriage between Charles and Henrietta Maria was strained as her religion and other issues caused friction and in spite of his marriage agreement to support France against the Huguenots, Charles sent Buckingham to defend them at La Rochelle. Although Buckingham proved unsuccessful and Louis XIII’s siege of the region did nothing to endear Buckingham to the English people or Parliament, in fact they detested him more.
King Charles I Fact 16: However the public and Parliament both would be appeased when on August 23rd 1628 George Villiers, the Duke of Buckingham was murdered by an army officer.
King Charles I Fact 17: Within his first four years of ruling, Charles dissolved Parliament three times and by 1629 he altogether dismissed Parliament and ruled alone raising taxes and further angering his public.
King Charles I Fact 18: Catholics and Puritans across the land, distraught with the religious oppression moved in their droves across the Atlantic to North America.
King Charles I Fact 19: Turmoil in Scotland caused Charles to recall Parliament in order to raised money and in November of 1641 he was forced to deal with military rebellion in Ireland. The following year, Civil War erupted in England.
King Charles I Fact 20: By 1646 the faction of monarchists would be defeated by a alliance of the New Model Army and the Scots who detained him and gave him over to Parliament. In 1647 he managed to escape to the Isle of Wight where he did what he could to encourage the Scottish discontents to attempt to invade England.
King Charles I Fact 21: Oliver Cromwell, the general of the New Model Army put down the royalists and ended the Second Civil War within a year.
King Charles I Fact 22: Charles I was arrested, tried for treason and found guilty.
King Charles I Fact 23: On January 30th of 1649 he was executed by beheading in London, England.
Influence and Legacy: Of his seven children six survived infancy and both Charles II and James II would follow their father on the throne.