King Richard I Fact File Biography: Lifespan: 1157 – 1189 *** Full Name: Richard the Lionheart was also known as King Richard I of England and Richard Cœur de Lion *** Date of Birth (Birthday): He was born on September 8 , 1157 *** Place of Birth: Richard the Lionheart was born in Oxford, England *** Family background: His father was Henry II *** Richard the Lionheart died on April 6, 1199 ***
King Richard I Fact 1: Richard the Lionheart was born on September 8, 1157 at Beaumont Palace, Oxford in England.
King Richard I Fact 3: His father was King Henry II, the great grandson of William the Conqueror, and his mother was Eleanor of Aquitaine. Richard the Lionheart had numerous full and half-siblings including two brothers older than himself which meant that he was unlikely to inherit the throne.
King Richard I Fact 4: Little is known about the childhood and education of Richard the Lionheart but a Latin prose narrative of the Third Crusade reported that he grew into a tall, handsome man with blond-red hair, pale skin and light colored eyes. He spoke a French dialect known as langue d'oïl.
King Richard I Fact 9: Following a truce made by Henry II and Louis VII on September 8, 1174, Richard the Lionheart asked his father to forgive him. Henry II gave him the Kiss of Peace; a traditional Christian greeting. His brothers arrived a few days later also seeking forgiveness from their father. Richard the Lionheart was given half of the income of Aquitaine and two castles in Poitou. Henry II kept their mother, Eleanor of Aquitaine, prisoner until he died on July 6, 1189. Part of the reason that he kept her prisoner was to ensure that Richard the Lionheart did not betray him again.
King Richard I Fact 10: His father died on July 6, 1189 and Richard the Lionheart became Duke of Normandy on July 20, 1189 and the King of England on September 3, 1189. He refused to allow any Jews or women attend his coronation at Westminster Abbey. The King's words turned the people of London against the Jews and they began rioting and burning down homes belonging to Jewish people. After the attacks, Richard the Lionheart feared that his reputation would become damaged and he demanded that all Jewish people be left alone.
King Richard I Fact 11: After successfully raising funds, he went on the Third Crusade with Philip II. He became an important Christian commander, leading the crusade in the summer of 1190. He arrived in Sicily with Philip II in September 1190 where he demanded the release of his sister, Queen Joan, who had been imprisoned by King Tancred I of Sicily. His sister was released on September 28, 1190.
King Richard I Fact 16: He married Berengaria of Navarre on May 12, 1191 in Limassol, Cyprus. She was the daughter of King Sancho VI of Navarre. A grand celebration was held following their wedding to commemorate not only their marriage, but the crowing of Richard as the King of Cyprus and his bride as the Queen of England and Cyprus. Although, Berengaria went on crusade with Richard the Lionheart for a time, the couple spent little time together and they didn't have any children.
King Richard I Fact 17: He continued to the Holy Land on the Third Crusade, landing in Acre in Northern Israel on June 8, 1191. Richard the Lionheart had a serious case of scurvy caused by a lack of vitamin C but he continued with the crusade regardless. Leopold and Philip left the crusade and Richard the Lionheart remained in the Holy Land without military support. He still managed to win many victories over the Muslim leader, Saladin, but he didn't retake Jerusalem from him.
King Richard I Fact 18: In December 1192, Richard the Lionheart was captured near Vienna by Leopold V, Duke of Austria, who imprisoned him at Dürnstein Castle in Austria. Leopold V believed that Richard the Lionheart was responsible for the death of one of his cousins known as Conrad of Montferrat. He was held prisoner until February 4, 1194 when a huge sum of money was paid for his release.
Influence & Legacy of Richard the Lionheart: Richard the Lionheart was the son of Henry II, he rose to the throne on July 6, 1189 and soon became a major participant in the Third Crusade.
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