He asked to view the axe that would take his head and having examined it remarked “This is a sharp Medicine, but it is a Physician for all diseases and miseries.” His last words were recorded as being “Strike, man, strike!”
Sir Walter Raleigh Fact File Biography: Lifespan: 1552/4 - 1618 *** Full Name: Sir Walter Raleigh *** Occupation: English Landed Gentleman and Writer, Poet and Courtier, Soldier, Spy and Explorer *** Date of Birth: Sir Walter Raleigh was born on January 22nd 1552/4 *** Place of Birth: Sir Walter Raleigh was born in Hayes Barton, East Budleigh, Devon, England *** Family background: His father was Walter Raleigh and his mother was Catherine Champernowne. His mother married twice and had several sons, John, Humphrey and Adrian Gilbert and Carew Raleigh *** Early life and childhood: He grew up in a protestant household and would have several close calls while Mary I was Queen of England and a staunch Roman Catholic *** Education: Sir Walter Raleigh would have been educated as befitted his station. It is known he attended Oriel College in Oxford and continued his education at Inns of Court and registered at Middle Temple ***
Sir Walter Raleigh Fact 1: Sir Walter Raleigh was born on January 22nd 1552/4 and during the 16th century period in history when Portugal and Spain were exploring the oceans of the world and colonizing new lands.
Sir Walter Raleigh Fact 3: During 1569 he travelled to France to assist the Huguenots in the French religious civil wars.
Sir Walter Raleigh Fact 8: During 1584 he was granted a Royal Charter by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth which gave him the authority to explore, colonize and also rule any “remote, heathen and barbarous lands, countries, and territories, not actually possessed of any Christian Prince, or inhabited by Christian People,” and in return he was to received one-fifth of any gold or silver that may be discovered.
Sir Walter Raleigh Fact 9: The charter was good for a seven year period. In that period it was hoped, by the Queen and Raleigh, that a base could be set up from which they could operate privateers on raids against the Spanish treasure ships.
Sir Walter Raleigh Fact 10: Although Raleigh himself never went to North America he did lead expeditions to the Orinoco River basin situated in South America and went in search of the golden city called El Dorado.
Sir Walter Raleigh Fact 11: Such expeditions were funded by himself and his friends but never actually produced any real wealth.
Sir Walter Raleigh Fact 15: He charged R Chapman with building him a ship which he was going to call her Ark, but at the time ships were also given the names of their owners so his ship would be called Ark Raleigh but when Elizabeth purchased the ship off of him she would finally become called Ark Royal.
Sir Walter Raleigh Fact 17: At this time no one was allowed to marry without the express pleasure of the Queen herself. Raleigh married Elizabeth Throckmorton who was one of the Queen’s ladies-in-waiting. Eleven years younger than Raleigh and already pregnant they married in secret. Bess gave birth to a son who was left with a wet nurse while she returned to her duties with Queen Elizabeth. The baby died in infancy.
Sir Walter Raleigh Fact 18: The Queen discovered the unsanctioned marriage and immediately dismissed Bess and had Raleigh sent to the Tower of London. As the Queen had need of his services, he was released from prison, but it would be many years before he would return to her favor.
Sir Walter Raleigh Fact 19: He would take part in the Capture of Cádiz and would be wounded for his part in 1596. He would also be present during the 3rd Spanish Armada in 1597 and fortunately the Armada would be dispersed due to severe weather.
Sir Walter Raleigh Fact 20: Although he would be reinstated to Elizabeth’s good favors, when she died, her successor would have him arrested on charges of treason for his part in the Main Plot and he was imprisoned once more in the Tower.
Sir Walter Raleigh Fact 21: During his trial, the main evidence against him was from one person, his friend, the 11th Baron Cobham, Henry Brooke. Raleigh repeatedly requested Cobham appear in court to answer to his eye witness statement, but his requests were refused. He would be found guilty on very flimsy evidence, but King James chose to spare his life. He was however held in the Tower until such time as the King decided to free him.
Sir Walter Raleigh Fact 22: He was pardoned in 1617 on condition that he would not be hostile towards the Spanish shipping or colonies. Having been granted permission to explore Venezuela, still in search of El Dorado, Raleigh, together with his friend Lawrence Keymis, set out.
Sir Walter Raleigh Fact 23: It would transpire that Keymis, who also had Raleigh’s son Walter aboard his ship, attacked an outpost of Santo Tome de Guayano on the Orinoco River, against Raleigh's wishes and in violation of the peace treaties. Raleigh’s son was shot and killed. When Raleigh was informed by Keymis of what had transpired and begged his forgiveness, Raleigh was not disposed to give it. Keymis committed suicide.
Sir Walter Raleigh Fact 24: When Raleigh returned home, the Spanish ambassador was outraged and demanded the King reinstate Raleigh's death sentence. King James had no choice but to comply. Although Raleigh had ample opportunity to make his escape, he chose not to.
Sir Walter Raleigh Fact 25: On October 29th 1618 Sir Walter Raleigh was beheaded in the Old Palace Yard at the Palace of Westminster. His embalmed head was present to his wife Bess and his body would be laid to rest in St Margaret’s at Westminster.
Influence and Legacy: A popular historical figure from the Elizabethan era he would become well known for introducing tobacco to England.
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